Tuesday, 22 September 2020

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UNRIC Library Newsletter - November 2018

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New UN websites & publications

UN in General


English: http://www.un.org/en/conf/migration/ 
French: http://www.un.org/fr/conf/migration/
Spanish: http://www.un.org/es/conf/migration/ 
The Intergovernmental Conference to Adopt the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, will be held in Marrakech, Morocco on 10 and 11 December 2018.
This Intergovernmental Conference is convened under the auspices of the General Assembly of the United Nations and held pursuant to the “New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants” (19 September 2016) which decided to launch a process of intergovernmental negotiations leading to the adoption of a global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration.


English: https://reform.un.org/
French: https://reform.un.org/fr
Spanish: https://reform.un.org/es
United to Reform. Better results for everyone. Everywhere.
UN Secretary-General António Guterres has made proposals to reform the United Nations since the beginning of his term in January 2017. To improve the delivery of our mandate, the United Nations is making sweeping changes in the following areas: Development, Management, Peace and Security.
See also: Ask DAG - http://ask.un.org/faq/207525

Former Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s Archives released online
The archives of former Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon have been made available online for public consultation via the website of the United Nations Archives and Records Management Section. Unlike the official documents of the United Nations, which are available through the Dag Hammarskjöld Library, the Organization’s archives are comprised of its internal working papers. Typically, United Nations archives are only released after 20 years, but in this case, former Secretary-General Ban’s office worked with the Archives and Records Management Section to ensure that his archives were released as soon, and as widely, as possible. By making the former Secretary-General’s archives available for public consultation, the United Nations is effecting its commitment to transparency and accountability. Many of the Secretary-General’s records, even those which were marked Confidential or Strictly Confidential, are now open for review.

abcdesnationsuniesABC des Nations Unies, 42e Édition
Ce manuel exhaustif destiné au grand public explique la structure des Nations Unies, le fonctionnement de l’Organisation, les principaux problèmes qu’elle aborde et son importance pour les populations du monde entier. Ce livre se penche sur les contributions de l’Organisation à la paix et à la sécurité internationales, au développement économique et social, aux droits de l’homme, à l’action humanitaire, au droit international et à la décolonisation. Les annexes contiennent des données à jour sur les Etats membres de l’ONU et les opérations de maintien de la paix, ainsi que les coordonnées des centres d’information, des services et des offices des Nations Unies. Cette édition, mise à jour en 2017, a été révisée pour tenir compte des développements significatifs dans le monde et dans l’Organisation elle-même depuis 2014.


Economic Growth and Sustainable Development

2018 High-Level Political Forum (HLPF): Synthesis Report of Voluntary National Reviews 2018
2018hlpfIntroduction: "The 2018 High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) on sustainable development took place from 9 to 18 July. A total of 46 countries presented voluntary national reviews, up from 43 countries that conducted reviews in 2017. ... The voluntary national reviews document how countries are tackling the transformative challenge of the 2030 Agenda. The reviews are country-specific and complement the broader thematic review of progress that also takes place at the HLPF. This report synthesizes some of the findings of the VNRs, drawing from the written reports. As in the prior two synthesis reports, this edition uses a theme-based analysis, based largely on the Secretary-General’s voluntary common reporting guidelines. The report examines the efforts of reporting countries to implement the 2030 Agenda, including challenges, gaps, achievements, and lessons learned."
See also: Voluntary National Review Reports – what do they report? (CDP Background Paper No. 46, July 2018): https://un4.me/2PnmXQe

2019 Global Education Monitoring Report, Migration, displacement and education (UNESCO)
English: https://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2019/migration
French: https://fr.unesco.org/gem-report/node/1878
Spanish: https://es.unesco.org/gem-report/node/1878
Summary also available in German & Portuguese: http://gem-report-2019.unesco.org/more-languages/
The report, released on 20 November 2018 in Berlin, shows that the number of migrant and refugee school-age children around the world today has grown by 26% since 2000 and could fill half a million classrooms. It highlights countries’ achievements and shortcomings in ensuring the right of migrant and refugee children to benefit from quality education, a right that serves the interests of both learners and the communities they live in. The right of these children to quality education, even if increasingly recognized on paper, is challenged daily in classrooms and schoolyards and denied outright by a few governments. In the two years since the landmark New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants in 2016, refugees have missed 1.5 billion days of school. Nevertheless, there has been progress in the inclusion of refugees in national education systems, as seen in eight of the top ten refugee hosting countries. Champions include low income countries such as Chad, Ethiopia and Uganda. Canada and Ireland are among the global leaders in implementing inclusive education policies for immigrants.

airpollutionAir pollution and child health: Prescribing clean air (WHO)
Report in English, Summary in English, French & Spanish: http://www.who.int/ceh/publications/air-pollution-child-health/en/
Every day around 93% of the world’s children under the age of 15 years (1.8 billion children) breathe air that is so polluted it puts their health and development at serious risk. Tragically, many of them die: WHO estimates that in 2016, 600,000 children died from acute lower respiratory infections caused by polluted air. A new WHO report released on 29 October 2018 examines the heavy toll of both ambient (outside) and household air pollution on the health of the world’s children, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The report is being launched on the eve of WHO’s first ever Global Conference on Air Pollution and Health. It reveals that when pregnant women are exposed to polluted air, they are more likely to give birth prematurely, and have small, low birth-weight children. Air pollution also impacts neurodevelopment and cognitive ability and can trigger asthma, and childhood cancer. Children who have been exposed to high levels of air pollution may be at greater risk for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease later in life.

gradjetThe Gradjet LDC graduation website
The website was launched on 26 October 2018 by the Committee for Development Policy (CDP) Secretariat. The website helps government officials in least developed countries (LDCs) understand what it means
to leave the LDC category and to plot a course for future action. Tailored to each country, showing what graduation means in context, the site shows what happens before, during and after leaving the category, with contacts, information and suggestions about what to do at each stage.

The Least Developed Countries Report 2018: Entrepreneurship for structural transformation; Beyond business as usual (UNCTAD)
Report in English, Overview in English, French & Spanish: https://unctad.org/en/pages/PublicationWebflyer.aspx?publicationid=2280
From Afghanistan to Zambia, governments in the world’s most disadvantaged countries must prioritize dynamic enterprises and enact policies to help them thrive, create jobs, innovate and transform the economy, according to “The Least Developed Countries Report 2018: Entrepreneurship for Structural Transformation”, released by UNCTAD on 20 November 2018. Subtitled “Beyond Business as Usual”, the report looks at the conditions for creating and growing high-impact businesses in the least developed countries (LDCs), a group of 47 nations that includes most of sub-Saharan Africa, some Asian countries, and several island states. The group qualifies for preferential treatment in world trade and climate-change arrangements due to chronic disadvantages that leave them among the world’s poorest nations.

Panorama of Rural Poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean (FAO)
Spanish: http://www.fao.org/3/CA2275ES/ca2275es.pdf
For the first time in a decade, the number of people falling into poverty in rural Latin America and the Caribbean has increased by two million, according to a new United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report, which called the worrying trend a “historical reversal.” Launched 21 November in Buenos Aires, the first edition of FAO’s Panorama of Rural Poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean, presented during the Week of Agriculture and Food, warned of an historical reversal in the struggle to improve the region’s rural, which now totals 59 million people. The last regional setback of this magnitude was a result of 2008 international financial crisis. According to the report, poverty, insecurity and environmental vulnerability have driven much involuntary migration from the region’s rural areas between 2014 and 2016. It indicates that most of the people who leave in Central America flee from rural municipalities, including small towns and cities with less than 100 000 inhabitants.

ozonedepletionScientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2018
The findings of a new UN-backed report, released on 5 November 2018 showing the ongoing healing of the ozone layer, are being hailed as a demonstration of what global agreements can achieve, and an inspiration for more ambitious climate action to halt a catastrophic rise in world temperatures. The study is the latest in a series of reports, released every four years, which monitor the recovery of ozone in the stratosphere, a layer that protects life on Earth from harmful layers of ultraviolet rays from the sun. It shows that the concentration of ozone-depleting substances continues to decrease, leading to an improvement in the layer since the previous assessment carried out in 2014.

Social protection for indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities: Overcoming discrimination and geographic isolation (Social Development Brief #7, November 2018)
This new social development brief was launched by DISD/DESA. While recent years have witnessed improvement in the situation of many ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples, others continue to be left behind. The 2018 Report on the World Social Situation highlights the significant gaps in the social protection coverage of indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities. Universal, tax-financed social protection measures are needed to boost coverage, but other barriers must also be addressed, including spatial disadvantage, the lack of legal identification and discrimination.

Social protection systems and measures for all? International migrants are left far behind (Social Development Brief #6, October 2018)
This DISD/DESA brief summarizes findings from the Report on the World Social Situation 2018 - Promoting Social Inclusion through Social Protection.

An Unfair Start: Inequality in Children's Education in Rich Countries (UNICEF)
English, French, Spanish & Italian: https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/995-an-unfair-start-education-inequality-children.html 
High national wealth does not guarantee equal access to a quality education, a new report released on 29 October 2018 by the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) suggests. The report incorporates new data from 41, wealthy, member countries of the European Union and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Countries were assessed on their children’s access to quality education, and differences in performance among children from preschool to primary school levels. According to the report, some of the poorest countries surveyed, such as Latvia and Lithuania, demonstrate higher preschool enrollment and more compatible reading performance among its students than wealthier countries. The survey was conducted by the UNICEF Office of Research-Innocenti, established by UNICEF to gather data in support of its advocacy for children worldwide.

World Malaria Report 2018
Report in English, additional information material in English, French & Spanish: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2018/en/
This year's report shows that after an unprecedented period of success in global malaria control, progress has stalled. Data from 2015–2017 highlight that no significant progress in reducing global malaria cases was made in this period. There were an estimated 219 million cases and 435 000 related deaths in 2017. The World Malaria Report 2018 draws on data from 91 countries and areas with ongoing malaria transmission. The information is supplemented by data from national household surveys and databases held by other organizations.
See also: WHO and partners launch new country-led response to put stalled malaria control efforts back on track - https://un4.me/2zpbEwT 

youthadvantageThe Youth Advantage: Engaging young people in green growth (IFAD)
On 17 November 2018, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) released its latest report on the transformation of rural areas, renewing its commitment to empower young people in developing countries as agents of change. The report shows that enabling access to land and other natural resources is fundamental to the success of young women and men working in agriculture. According to the report, the scarcity of farmland available to youth is increasingly under threat from climate change, making long-term commitments to agricultural even less appealing to them. In addition, young people in rural areas face other challenges, including a lack of vocational training, Internet connectivity and productive technologie


International Peace and Security

Concept note for the Security Council open debate on the theme "Promoting the implementation of the women and peace and security agenda and sustaining peace through women’s political and economic empowerment" (S/2018/904, 11 October 2018)
English, French & Spanish: http://undocs.org/S/2018/904 
The Security Council held an open debate on 25 October 2018 on women and peace and security on the theme “Promoting the implementation of the women and peace and security agenda and sustaining peace through women’s political and economic empowerment”. To guide the discussion, Bolivia, the Security Council President for October, has prepared this concept note.
Further information: http://www.unwomen.org/en/news/in-focus/women-peace-security

Concept note for the Security Council Open Debate on the theme “Maintenance of International Peace and Security: Strengthening Multilateralism and the Role of the United Nations” (S/2018/982, 1 November 2018)
English, French & Spanish: http://undocs.org/S/2018/982
The Security Council held an open debate on 9 November 2018 on the theme “Maintenance of international peace and security: strengthening multilateralism and the role of the United Nations.” To provide more information and guide a fruitful discussion, China, the Security Council President for November, has prepared this concept note.

Concept note for the Security Council Open Debate on "Peace and Security in Africa: Strengthening peacekeeping operations in Africa" (S/2018/1004, 9 November 2018)
English, French & Spanish: http://undocs.org/S/2018/1004
The Security Council held an open debate on 20 November 2018 on the theme “Peace and security in Africa: strengthening peacekeeping operations in Africa”. To guide a fruitful discussion, China, the Security Council President for November, has prepared this concept note.


Human Rights

Universal Declaration of Human Rights at 70: 30 Articles on 30 Articles
English: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=23871&LangID=E 
Spanish: https://www.ohchr.org/SP/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=23871&LangID=S
It has been 70 years since world leaders, driven by the desire to prevent another Holocaust, explicitly spelled out the rights everyone on the planet could expect and demand simply because they are human beings. On 9 November 2018, the UN Human Rights Office launched a special series to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the UDHR, which was adopted in Paris on 10 December 1948. Following an introductory article about the history and continuing significance of this extraordinary landmark document, OHCHR is, for the next 30 days, publishing an article a day to put each of the Declaration’s 30 Articles into perspective.

General comment No. 36 (2018) on article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, on the right to life (CCPR/C/GC/36, 30 October 2018, Advance unedited version)
The UN Human Rights Committee, which monitors implementation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, published on 1 November a new general comment: a comprehensive text providing legal guidance on article 6, the right to life. The general comment the Committee has been in the works for more than three years. It touches on extremely complicated issues such as the relationship between the right to life and other human rights, as well as other international law norms. The Comment then identifies the obligations of states to protect life against a variety of challenges, including environmental degradation, war and extreme poverty. The general comment also addresses the duties of states to individuals located outside their territory but affected nonetheless by their activities or activities of corporations based in their territory. The document also declares that states that have not yet abolished the death penalty should gradually move toward abolition

Violations and Abuses against Civilians in Gbudue and Tambura States (Western Equatoria), April-August 2018
Report: https://un4.me/2Kpwd0s 
Infographics: https://un4.me/2zpe3aT
Interactive map: https://sites.google.com/view/hrd-unmiss
A UN report, released on 18 October 2018, has documented the immense suffering of civilians in the Western Equatoria region of South Sudan where 900 people were abducted and 24,000 forced to flee their homes during a surge in violence between April and August. In April 2018, after several months of relative calm, the pro-Riek Machar Sudan People’s Liberation Army in-Opposition (SPLA-IO (RM)) intensified attacks against villages and targeted civilians in Gbudue and Tambura. The Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)’s offensives to dislodge SPLA-IO (RM) forces also resulted in harm to civilians, as these operations failed to distinguish between civilians and combatants, the report by the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) and the UN Human Rights Office says. Corroborated victim and witness accounts indicate that women and girls as young as 12, abducted by opposition forces, were paraded and lined up for commanders to choose as “wives”. Those who were not chosen were left for other fighters who subjected them to repeated rapes. Abducted young men and boys were forced to be fighters or used as porters.


Every four days, a journalist is murdered, often for simply doing their job of uncovering something that someone wants to stay hidden: the vast majority of these killings go unpunished. To help raise awareness of this situation, UNESCO, the UN Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization, is launching a new campaign, Truth Never Dies, on 2 November, the International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists. The organization is calling for media partners to support the campaign by publishing stories on, or by, journalists who have been killed simply for doing their job, to coincide with the 2 November commemoration. UNESCO has produced a toolkit for media that want to take part: https://en.unesco.org/commemorations/endimpunity/2018/communication

Unearthing Atrocities: Mass Graves in territory formerly controlled by ISIL (UNAMI/OHCHR, 6 November 2018)
More than 200 mass graves containing the remains of thousands of victims have been discovered in areas formerly controlled by ISIL in Iraq, according to a UN report on 6 November 2018. The report highlights the legacy of ISIL’s relentless campaign of terror and violence and victims’ calls for truth and justice. The UN Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) and the UN Human Rights Office have documented the existence of 202 mass grave sites in the governorates of Ninewa, Kirkuk, Salah al-Din and Anbar in the northern and western parts of the country – but there may be many more. While it is difficult to determine the total number of people in these graves, the smallest site, in west Mosul, contained eight bodies while the biggest is believed to be the Khasfa sinkhole south of Mosul which may contain thousands. The report stresses that these sites could potentially contain critical forensic material to assist in the identification of victims and to build an understanding of the scale of crimes that occurred.


Humanitarian Affairs

Hearing and Being Voices in Syria: Working Together to Raise Awareness on Gender-Based Violence (UNHCR)
This toolkit provides four comprehensive programs for delivering seven key GBV messages to women, adolescent girls, men and adolescent boys in North West Syria.

IOM launches updated Counter Trafficking Data Portal with new statistics
A new version of the Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC) has been released on 26 October 2018 now featuring data on over 90,000 cases of human trafficking and new data visualization tools. CTDC is the world’s first global data portal on human trafficking, with primary data contributed by organizations around the world, bringing together knowledge and diffusing data standards across the counter-trafficking movement. For the first time, CTDC facilitates unparalleled access to the largest dataset of its kind in the world, providing a deeper understanding of human trafficking both through the visualisations on the site and through the publicly available downloadable data file.


Nuclear, Chemical and Conventional Weapons Disarmament


Saving Lives: Bi-annual United Nations bulletin for national officials working on small arms control
English: https://www.un.org/disarmament/2018/10/23/savinglives-issue1 
French: https://www.un.org/disarmament/fr/2018/10/24/savinglives-issue1-fr/
Spanish: https://www.un.org/disarmament/es/2018/10/24/savinglives-issue1-sp/
“At the 2018 UN small arms review conference, governments agreed to use national points of contact to strengthen the exchange of information and other forms of international cooperation. This bulletin fills that gap. We aim to inform national authorities every six months on good practices in small arms control and the latest developments in the United Nations, so that they have access to the most authoritative and tested methods and policies. If you, as a national official working on effective small arms control, are easily able to retrieve state-of-the-art tools and information, this will contribute to the goal of ‘disarmament saving lives’: the key objective on conventional arms regulation in the UN Secretary-General’s ‘Disarmament Agenda’.”

Securing Our Common Future: An Agenda for Disarmament
The Implementation Plan is now available: https://www.un.org/disarmament/sg-agenda/en/
Actions included are: Disarmament to save humanity, Disarmament that saves lives, Disarmament for future generations, Strengthening partnerships for disarmament.